Chapter 23 – Miscellaneous


(1)  It shall not be lawful to insert—

(i)  in any contract for or in relation to the sale or lease of a patented article or an article made by a patented process; or

(ii)  in licence to manufacture or use a patented article; or

(iii)  in a licence to work any process protected by a patent, a condition the effect of which may be—

(a)  to require the purchaser, lessee, or licensee to acquire from the vendor, lessor, or licensor or his nominees, or to prohibit from acquiring or to restrict in any manner or to any extent his right to acquire from any person or to prohibit him from acquiring except from the vendor, lessor, or licensor or his nominees any article other than the patented article or an article other than that made by the patented process; or

(b)  to prohibit the purchaser, lessee or licensee from using or to restrict in any manner or to any extent the right of the purchaser, lessee or licensee, to use an article other than the patented article or an article other than that made by the patented process, which is not supplied by the vendor, lessor or licensor or his nominee; or

(c)  to prohibit the purchaser, lessee or licensee from using or to restrict in any manner or to any extent the right of the purchaser, lessee or licensee to use any process other than the patented process,

(d)  to provide exclusive grant back, prevention to challenges to validity of Patent & Coercive package licensing, and any such condition shall be void.

(2)  A condition of the nature referred to in clause (a) or clause (b) or clause (c) of sub-section

(1)  shall not cease to be a condition falling within that sub-section merely by reason of the fact that the agreement containing it has been entered into separately, whether before or after the contract relating to the sale, lease or licence of the patented article or process.

(3)  In proceedings against any person for the infringement of a patent, it shall be a defence to prove that at the time of the infringement there was in force a contract relating to the patent and containing a condition declared unlawful by this section:

Provided that this sub-section shall not apply if the plaintiff is not a party to the contract and proves to the satisfaction of the court that the restrictive condition was inserted in the contract without his knowledge and consent, express or implied.

(4)  Nothing in this section shall—

(a)  affect a condition in a contract by which a person is prohibited from selling goods other than those of a particular person;

(b)  validate a contract which, but for this section, would be invalid;

(c)  affect a condition in a contract for the lease of, or licence to use a patented article, by which the lessor or licensor reserves to himself or his nominee the right to supply such new parts of the patented article as may be required or to put or keep it in repair.

(5)  [Omitted by the Patents (Amendment) Act, 2002]


(1) Any contract for the sale or lease of a patented article or for licence to manufacture, use or work a patented article or process, or relating to any such sale, lease or licence, may at any time after the patent or all the patents by which the article or process was protected at the time of the making of the contract has or have ceased to be in force, and notwithstanding anything to the contrary in the contract or in any other contract, be determined by the purchaser, lessee, or licensee, as the case may be, of the patent on giving three months notice in writing to the other party.

(2)The provisions of this section shall be without prejudice to any right of determining a contract exercisable apart from this section.

142. FEES.

(1)  There shall be paid in respect of the grant of patents and applications therefor, and in respect of other matters in relation to the grant of patents under this Act, such fees as may be prescribed by the Central Government.

(2)  Where a fee is payable in respect of the doing of an act by the Controller, the Controller shall not do that act until the fee has been paid.

(3)  Where a fee is payable in respect of the filing of a document at the patent office, the fee shall be paid along with the document or within the prescribed time and the document shall be deemed not to have been filed at the office if the fee has not been paid within such time.

(4)  Where a principal patent is granted later than two years from the date of the filing of the application, the fees which have become due in the meantime may be paid within a term of three months from the date of the recording of the patent in the register or within the extended period not later than nine months from the date of recording.


Subject to the provisions of Chapter VII, an application for a patent, and any specification filed in pursuance thereof, shall not, except with the consent of the applicant, be published by the Controller before the expiration of the period prescribed under sub-section (1) of section 11A or before the same is open to public inspection in pursuance of sub-section (3) of section 11A or section 43.


The reports of examiners to the Controller under this Act shall not be open to public inspection or be published by the Controller; and such reports shall not be liable to production or inspection in any legal proceeding unless the court certifies that the production or inspection is desirable in the interests of justice, and ought to be allowed.


The Controller shall publish periodically an official journal which shall contain such information as may be required to be published by or under the provisions of this Act or any rule made thereunder.


(1)  The Controller may, at any time during the continuance of the patent, by notice in writing, require a patentee or a licensee, exclusive or otherwise, to furnish to him within two months from the date of such notice or within such further time as the Controller may allow, such information or such periodical statements as to the extent to which the patented invention has been commercially worked in India as may be specified in the notice.

(2)  Without prejudice to the provisions of sub-section (1), every patentee and every licensee (whether exclusive or otherwise) shall furnish in such manner and form and at such intervals (not being less than six months) as may be prescribed statements as to the extent to which the patented invention has been worked on a commercial scale in India.

(3)  The Controller may publish the information received by him under subsection (1) or sub-section (2) in such manner as may be prescribed.


(1)  A certificate purporting to be signed by the Controller as to any entry, matter or thing which he is authorized by this Act or any rules made thereunder to make or do, shall be prima facie evidence of the entry having been made and of the contents thereof and of the matter or thing having been done or omitted to be done.

(2)  A copy of any entry in any register or of any document kept in the patent office or of any patent, or an extract from any such register or document, purporting to be certified by the Controller and sealed with the seal of the patent office shall be admitted in evidence in all courts, and in all proceedings, without further proof or production of the original.

(3)  The Controller or any other officer of the patent office shall not, in any legal proceedings to which he is not a party, be compellable to produce the register or any other document in his custody, the contents of which can be proved by the production of a certified copy issued under this Act or to appear as a witness to prove the matters therein recorded unless by order of the court made for special causes.


(1)  If any person is, by reason of minority, lunacy or other disability, incapable of making any statement or doing anything required or permitted by or under this Act, the lawful guardian, committee or manager (if any) of the person subject to the disability, or if there be none, any person appointed by any court possessing jurisdiction in respect of his property, may make such statement or a statement as nearly corresponding thereto as circumstances permit, and do such thing in the name and on behalf of the person subject to the disability.

(2)  An appointment may be made by the court for the purposes of this section upon the petition of any person acting on behalf of the person subject to the disability or of any other person interested in the making of the statement or the doing of the thing.


Any notice required or authorised to be given by or under this Act, and any application or other document so authorised or required to be made or filed, may be given, made or filed by post.


If any party by whom notice of any opposition is given under this Act or by whom application is made to the Controller for the grant of a licence under a patent neither resides nor carries on business in India, the Controller may require him to give security for the costs of the proceedings, and in default of such security being given may treat the opposition or application as abandoned.


(1)  Every order of the High Court or the Appellate Board on a petition for revocation, including orders granting certificates of validity of any claim, shall be transmitted by the High Court or the Appellate Board to the Controller who shall cause an entry thereof and reference thereto to be made in the register.

(2)  Where in any suit for infringement of a patent or in any suit under section 106 the validity of any claim or a specification is contested and that claim is found by the court to be valid or not valid, as the case may be, the court shall transmit a copy of its judgment and decree to the Controller who shall on receipt thereof cause an entry in relation to such proceeding to be made in the prescribed manner in a supplemental record.

(3)  The provisions of sub-sections (1) and (2) shall also apply to the court to which appeals are preferred against decisions of the Appellate Board or the courts, as the cas e may be, referred to in those sub-sections.


[Omitted by the Patents (Amendment) Act, 2005]


A person making a request to the Controller in the prescribed manner for information relating to any such matters as may be prescribed as respects any patent specified in the request or as respects any application for a patent so specified shall be entitled, subject to the payment of the prescribed fee, to have information supplied to him accordingly.


If a patent is lost or destroyed, or its non-productionis accounted for to the satisfaction of the Controller, the Controller may at any time, on application made in the prescribed manner and on payment of the prescribed fee, cause a duplicate thereof to be sealed and delivered to the applicant.


The Central Government shall cause to be placed before both Houses of Parliament once a year a report respecting the execution of this Act by or under the Controller.


Subject to the other provisions contained in this Act, a patent shall have to all intents the like effect as against Government as it has against any person.


Nothing in this Act shall affect the power of the Government or of any person deriving title directly or indirectly from the Government to sell or use any articles forfeited under any law for the time being in force.


Notwithstanding anything contained in this Act, the Central Government shall—

(a)  not disclose any information relating to any patentable invention or any application relating to the grant of patent under this Act, which it considers prejudicial to the interest of security of India;

(b)  take any action including the revocation of any patent which it considers necessary in the interest of the security of India by issue of a notification in the Official Gazette to that effect.

Explanation.For the purposes of this section, the expression “security of India” includes any action necessary for the security of India which—

(i)  relates to fissionable materials or the materials from which they are derived; or

(ii)  relates to the traffic in arms, ammunition and implements of war and to such traffic in other goods and materials as is carried on directly or indirectly for the purpose of supplying a military establishment; or

(iii)  is taken in time of war or other emergency in international relations.


The High Court may make rules consistent with this Act as to the conduct and procedure in respect of all proceedings before it under this Act.


(1)  The Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, make rules for carrying out the purposes of this Act.

(2)  Without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing power, the Central Government may make rules to provide for all or any of the following matters, namely:—

(i)  the form and manner in which any application for a patent, any specifications or drawings and any other application or document may be filed in the patent office;

(ia)  the period which the Controller may allow for filing of statement and undertaking for in respect of applications under sub-section (1), the period within which the details relating to processing of applications may be filed before the Controller and the details to be furnished by the applicant to the Controller under sub-section (2) of section 8;

(ib)  the period within which a reference to the deposit of materials shall be made in the specification under sub-clause (A) of clause (ii) of the proviso to sub-section (4) of section 10;

(ic)  the period for which application for patent shall not be open to the public under sub-section (1) and the manner in which the applicant may make a request to the Controller to publish his application under sub-section (2) of section 11 A;

(id)  the manner of making the request for examination for an application for patent and the period within which such examination shall be made under sub-sections (1) and (3) of section 11B;

(ie)  the manner in which an application for withdrawal of an application for grant of a patent shall be made and the period within which a request for examination from the date of revocation of secrecy directions shall be made under the proviso to sub-section (4) of section 11B.

(ii)  the time within which any act or thing may be done under this Act, including the manner in which and the time within which any matter may be published under this Act;

(iii)  the fees which may be payable under this Act and the manner and time of payment of such fees;

(iv)  the matters in respect of which the examiner may make a report to the Controller;

(v)  the manner in which and the period within which the Controller shall consider and dispose off a representation under sub-section (1) of section 25;

(va)  the period within which the Controller is required to dispose of an application under section 39;

(vi)  the form and manner in which and the time within which any notice may be given under this Act;

(vii)  the provisions which may be inserted in an order for restoration of a patent for the protection of persons who may have availed themselves of thesubject-matter of the patent after the patent had ceased;

(viii)  the establishment of branch offices of the patent office and the regulation generally of the business of the patent office, including its branch offices;

(ix)  the maintenance of the register of patents and the safeguards to be observed in the maintenance of such register in computer floppies, diskettes or any other electronic form and the matters to be entered therein;

(x)  the matters in respect of which the Controller shall have powers of a civil court;

(xi)  the time when and the manner in which the register and any other document open to inspection may be inspected under this Act;

(xii)  the qualifications of, and the preparation of a roll of, scientific advisers for the purpose of section 115;

(xiia)  the salaries and allowances and other conditions of service of the officers and other employees of the Appellate Board under subsection (2) and the manner in which the officers and other employees of the Appellate Board shall discharge their functions under subsection (3) of section 117;

(xiib)  the form of making an appeal, the manner of verification and the fee payable under sub-section (3) of section 117A;

(xiic)  the form in which, and the particulars to be included in the application to the Appellate Board under sub-section (1) of section 117D;

(xiii)  the manner in which any compensation for acquisition by Government of an invention may be paid;

(xiv)  the manner in which the register of patent agents may be maintained under sub­ section (1) of section 125 and the safeguards to be observed in the maintenance of such register of patent agents on computer floppies, diskettes or any other electronic form under subsection (2) of that section; the conduct of qualifying examinations for patent agents; and matters connected with their practice and conduct, including the taking of disciplinary proceedings against patent agents for misconduct;

(xv)  the regulation of the making, printing, publishing and selling of indexes to, and abridgements of, specifications and other documents in the patent office; and the inspection of indexes and abridgements and other documents;

(xvi)  any other matter which has to be or may be prescribed.

(3)  The power to make rules under this section shall be subject to condition of the rules being made after previous publication:

Provided that the Central Government may, if it is satisfied that the circumstances exist which render it practically not possible to comply with such condition of previous publication, dispense with such compliance.


Every rule made under this Act shall be laid, as soon as may be after it is made, before each House of Parliament while it is in session for a total period of thirty days which may be comprised in one session or in two or more successive sessions, and if, before the expiry of the session immediately following the session or the successive sessions aforesaid, both Houses agree in making any modification in the rule or both Houses agree that the rule should not be made, the rule shall thereafter have effect only in such modified form or be of no effect, as the case may be; so, however, that any such modification or annulment shall be without prejudice to the validity of anything previously done under that rule.


[Omitted by the Patents (Amendment) Act, 2002]


(1)  The Indian Patents and Designs Act, 1911, in so far as it relates to patents, is hereby repealed, that is to say, the said Act shall be amended in the manner specified in the Schedule.

(2)and (3) [Omitted by the Patents (Amendment) Act, 2002]

(4)  The mention of particular matters in this section shall not prejudice the general application of the General Clauses Act, 1897 (10 of 1897), with respect to repeals.

(5)  Notwithstanding anything contained in this Act, any suit for infringement of a patent or any proceeding for revocation of a patent, pending in any court at the commencement of this Act, may be continued and disposed of, as if this Act had not been passed.

163. AMENDMENT OF ACT 43 OF 1958.

[Omitted by the Patents (Amendment) Act, 2005]